Gamma-Mangostin competitively inhibited the
activities of both COX-1 & COX-2

1: Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9 Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Nakatani K, Nakahata N, Arakawa T, Yasuda H, Ohizumi Y. Department of Pharmaceutical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, 980-8578, Sendai, Japan. 
PMID: 11754876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

mangosteen-01The fruit hull of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., has been used for many years as a medicine for treatment of skin infection, wounds, and diarrhea in Southeast Asia.

In the present study, we examined the effect of gamma-mangostin, a tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthone contained in mangosteen, on arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in C6 rat glioma cells.

Gamma-Mangostin had a potent inhibitory activity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release induced by A23187, a Ca2+ ionophore. The inhibition was concentration-dependent, with the IC50 value of about 5 microM. gamma-Mangostin had no inhibitory effect on A23187-induced phosphorylation of p42/p44 extracellular signal regulated kinase / mitogen-activated protein kinase or on the liberation of [14C]-AA from the cells labeled with [14C]-AA.

However, gamma-mangostin concentration-dependently inhibited the conversion of AA to PGE2 in microsomal preparations, showing its possible inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). In enzyme assay in vitro, gammamangostin inhibited the activities of both constitutive COX (COX-1) and inducible COX (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner, with the IC50 values of about 0.8 and 2 microM, respectively.

Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that gamma-mangostin competitively inhibited the activities of both COX-1 and -2. This study is a first demonstration that gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, directly inhibits COX activity.
The Xanthones from the mangosteen have been shown in laboratory studies to be powerful Antioxidants, Anti-Inflammatories and to have other special properties. However, laboratory results do not guarantee that the same will happen in the human body. Mangosteen is a nutritious fruit not a drug, and no therapeutic claims are made for this product.